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    dibromine
    CAS No.: 7726-95-6 Formula: Br2 Molecular Weight: 159.80800

    dibromine

    CAS No.: 7726-95-6 Formula: Br2 Molecular Weight: 159.80800
    Suppliers: All(0) China Suppliers(0) Price Available(0) Contractor(0)

    Description

    Bromine (from AncientGreek: βρ?μο?, brómos, meaning "stench") is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is a halogen. The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob L?wig (in 1825) and Antoine Jér?me Balard (in 1826). Elemental bromine is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. Bromine does not occur free in nature, but in colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, analogous to table salt.
    Bromine is rarer than about three-quarters of elements in the Earth's crust. The high solubility of bromide ions has caused its accumulation in the oceans, and commercially the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China. About 556,000 tonnes were produced in 2007, an amount similar to the far more abundant element magnesium.
    At high temperatures, organobromine compounds readily convert to free bromine atoms, a process which has the effect of stopping free radical chemical chain reactions. This effect makes organobromine compounds useful as fire retardants; more than half the bromine produced industrially worldwide each year is put to this use. Unfortunately, the same property causes sunlight to convert volatile organobromine compounds to free bromine atoms in the atmosphere, and an unwanted side effect of this process is ozone depletion. As a result, many organobromide compounds that were formerly in common use—such as the pesticide, methyl bromide—have been abandoned. Bromine compounds are still used for purposes such as in well drilling fluids, in photographic film, and as an intermediate in the manufacture of organic chemicals.
    Bromine has been long believed to have no essential function in mammals, but recent research suggests that bromine is necessary for tissue development. In addition, bromine is used preferentially over chlorine by one antiparasitic enzyme in the human immune system. Organobromides are needed and produced enzymatically from bromide by some lower life forms in the sea, particularly algae, and the ash of seaweed was one source of bromine's discovery. As a pharmaceutical, the simple bromide ion (Br?) has inhibitory effects on the central nervous system, and bromide salts were once a major medical sedative, before being replaced by shorter-acting drugs. They retain niche uses as antiepileptics.

    Basic Info

    Chemical Name dibromine
    Synonyms

    Bromine; Br2;

    CAS No. 7726-95-6
    Molecular Formula Br2
    Molecular Weight 159.80800
    PSA 0.00000
    LogP 1.69120

    Numbering system

    UNII SBV4XY874G

    Properties

    Appearance & Physical State dark red liquid or reddish-brown gas
    Density 3.119
    Boiling Point 58.7oC
    Melting Point -7.2oC
    Flash Point 113oC
    Refractive Index 1.55
    Water Solubility 35 g/L (20 oC)
    Stability Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, alkali metals, powdered metals, steel, iron, copper, organic materials.
    Storage Condition 2-8oC
    Vapor Density 7.14 (vs air)
    Vapor Pressure 175 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

    Safety Info

    RTECS EF9100000
    Hazard Class 8
    Safety Statements S26-S45-S61-S7/9
    HS Code 2801302000
    WGK Germany 2
    Packing Group I
    RIDADR UN 1744
    Risk Statements R26; R35; R50
    Hazard Codes T+; C; N
    Hazard Declaration H314; H330; H400
    Symbol GHS05, GHS06, GHS09
    Signal Word Danger
    Caution Statement P260; P273; P280; P284; P305 + P351 + P338; P310
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    SAFETY DATA SHEETS

    According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

    Version: 1.0

    Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

    Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

    1.Identification

    1.1 GHS Product identifier

    Product name dibromine

    1.2 Other means of identification

    Product number -
    Other names Br2

    1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

    Identified uses For industry use only. Adsorbents and absorbents,Dyes,Flame retardants,Intermediates
    Uses advised against no data available

    1.4 Supplier's details

    Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
    Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
    Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
    Telephone +86(21)64956998
    Fax +86(21)54365166

    1.5 Emergency phone number

    Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
    Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

    2.Hazard identification

    2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

    Skin corrosion, Category 1A

    Acute toxicity - Inhalation, Category 2

    Hazardous to the aquatic environment, short-term (Acute) - Category Acute 1

    2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

    Pictogram(s)
    Signal word

    Danger

    Hazard statement(s)

    H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

    H330 Fatal if inhaled

    H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

    Precautionary statement(s)
    Prevention

    P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

    P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

    P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

    P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

    P284 [In case of inadequate ventilation] wear respiratory protection.

    P273 Avoid release to the environment.

    Response

    P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.

    P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

    P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.

    P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

    P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

    P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

    P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

    P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see ... on this label).

    P391 Collect spillage.

    Storage

    P405 Store locked up.

    P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

    Disposal

    P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

    2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

    none

    3.Composition/information on ingredients

    3.1 Substances

    Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
    dibromine dibromine 7726-95-6 none 100%

    4.First-aid measures

    4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

    General advice

    Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

    If inhaled

    Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer immediately for medical attention. See Notes.

    In case of skin contact

    First rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again. Put clothes in sealable container. Refer immediately for medical attention.

    In case of eye contact

    Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention.

    If swallowed

    Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer immediately for medical attention.

    4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

    Inhalation exposure to 11-23 mg/m3 produces severe choking. 30-60 mg/m3 is extremely dangerous. 200 mg/m3 is fatal in a short time. Vapors can cause acute as well as chronic poisoning. It has cumulative properties. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Poisoning is due to the corrosive action on the gastrointestinal tract. Nervous, circulatory and renal disturbances occur after ingestion. Ingestion of liquid can cause death due to circulatory collapse and asphyxiation from swelling of the respiratory tract. The lowest oral lethal dose reported for humans is 14 mg/kg. The lowest lethal inhalation concentration reported for humans is 1000 ppm. (EPA, 1998)

    4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

    Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Bromine, methyl bromide, and related compounds/

    5.Fire-fighting measures

    5.1 Extinguishing media

    Suitable extinguishing media

    If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty). Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.

    5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

    Will cause ignition of organic materials spontaneous ignition possible when combined with potassium, phosphorus and tin and a wide variety of other chemicals. It reacts explosively with acetylene, acrylonitrile, ammonia, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, hydrogen, isobutyrophenone, nickel carbonyl, nitrogen triiodide, ozone, oxygen difluoride, phosphorus, potassium, silver azide, sodium and sodium carbide. When heated it emits highly toxic fumes and will react with water or steam to product toxic and corrosive fumes. Bromine is incompatible with a wide variety of materials including alkali hydroxides; arsenites; ferrous, mercurous salts; hypophosphites and other oxidizable substances. Vaporizes rapidly at room temperature. (EPA, 1998)

    5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

    Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

    6.Accidental release measures

    6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

    Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

    6.2 Environmental precautions

    Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: gas-tight chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Ventilation. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Remove vapour with fine water spray. Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Absorb remaining liquid in dry sand or inert absorbent. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.

    6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

    1) VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL OR LEAK. 2) COLLECT FOR RECLAMATION OR ABSORB IN VERMICULITE, DRY SAND, EARTH, OR A SIMILAR MATERIAL OR POUR SODIUM THIOSULFATE OR LIME WATER OVER SMALL SPILLS.

    7.Handling and storage

    7.1 Precautions for safe handling

    Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

    7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

    Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Separated from food and feedstuffs. See Chemical Dangers. Cool. Dry. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. Store only in original container. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities: Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage. Do not store in polyethylene containers. Handle and open container with care.

    8.Exposure controls/personal protection

    8.1 Control parameters

    Occupational Exposure limit values

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 hour Time-Weighted Average: 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/cu m).

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 minute Short-Term Exposure Limit: 0.3 ppm (2 mg/cu m).

    Biological limit values

    no data available

    8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

    Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

    8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

    Eye/face protection

    Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

    Skin protection

    Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

    Respiratory protection

    Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

    Thermal hazards

    no data available

    9.Physical and chemical properties

    Physical state dark red liquid or reddish-brown gas
    Colour Dark reddish-brown, volatile, mobile diatomic liquid; vaporizes at room temperature
    Odour Suffocating odor
    Melting point/ freezing point 145°C(dec.)(lit.)
    Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 58.8°C(lit.)
    Flammability Noncombustible Liquid, but accelerates the burning of combustibles.Not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of bursting. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
    Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
    Flash point 79°C(lit.)
    Auto-ignition temperature Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
    Decomposition temperature no data available
    pH no data available
    Kinematic viscosity 0.134 cSt at 20°C; 0.288 cSt at 30°C; 0.264 cSt at 40°C; 0.245 at 50°C
    Solubility In water:35 g/L (20 oC)
    Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
    Vapour pressure 175 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
    Density and/or relative density 3.119g/mLat 25°C(lit.)
    Relative vapour density 7.14 (vs air)
    Particle characteristics no data available

    10.Stability and reactivity

    10.1 Reactivity

    no data available

    10.2 Chemical stability

    Stable under recommended storage conditions.

    10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

    The vapour is heavier than air.BROMINE is a powerful oxidizing agent. Reacts vigorously with reducing reagents. Can ignite a combustible material upon contact. If heated by itself or if mixed with water or steam, highly toxic and corrosive fumes are emitted. Reacts explosively with hydrogen, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ammonia, trimethylamine, nitromethane, metal azides (silver or sodium azide). Mixtures with lithium or sodium are shock-sensitive. Ignites on contact with germanium, trialkyl boranes, copper and alkali metal acetylides [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 506]. Attacks most metals, including platinum and palladium [Hawley]. May react violently to form bromides upon contact with Mg, Sr, B, Al, Hg, Ti, Sn, Sb in powder or sheet form. Sodium, potassium, antimony and germanium ignite in bromine vapor and react explosively. Ignites on contact with germanium, trialkyl boranes, copper and alkali metal acetylides [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 506]. Violent reaction with methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, diethyl ether, carbonyl compounds, tetrahydrofuran, acrylonitrile, ozone, phosphorus. Methyl acetylides or carbides ignite at room temperature on contact with bromine vapor. Explosive reaction with red phosphorus, metal azides, nitromethane, silane and its homologues [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 109]. Reacts violently on contact with natural rubber [Pascal, 1960, vol. 16.1, 371].

    10.4 Conditions to avoid

    no data available

    10.5 Incompatible materials

    During bromination of acetone to bromoacetone, presence of a large excess of bromine must be avoided to prevent sudden and violent reaction.

    10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

    no data available

    11.Toxicological information

    Acute toxicity

    • Oral: LD50 Mouse oral 3100 mg/kg bw
    • Inhalation: LC50 Mouse inhalation 750 ppm (9 min)
    • Dermal: no data available

    Skin corrosion/irritation

    no data available

    Serious eye damage/irritation

    no data available

    Respiratory or skin sensitization

    no data available

    Germ cell mutagenicity

    no data available

    Carcinogenicity

    no data available

    Reproductive toxicity

    no data available

    STOT-single exposure

    no data available

    STOT-repeated exposure

    no data available

    Aspiration hazard

    no data available

    12.Ecological information

    12.1 Toxicity

    • Toxicity to fish: LC50; Species: Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill); Conditions: freshwater, static; Concentration: 0.52 ppm for 24 hr (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.83 ppm)
    • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: LC50; Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea) age < or = 24 hr; Conditions: freshwater, static, 22°C, pH 8.0 (7.4-9.4), hardness 173 mg/L CaCO3, dissolved oxygen >60%; Concentration: 1500 ug/L for 24 hr (95% confidence interval: 1000-2200 ug/L)
    • Toxicity to algae: no data available
    • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

    12.2 Persistence and degradability

    Bromine will slowly be reduced to bromide by natural oxidizable materials(1).

    12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

    no data available

    12.4 Mobility in soil

    no data available

    12.5 Other adverse effects

    no data available

    13.Disposal considerations

    13.1 Disposal methods

    Product

    The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

    Contaminated packaging

    Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

    14.Transport information

    14.1 UN Number

    ADR/RID: UN1744 IMDG: UN1744 IATA: UN1744

    14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

    ADR/RID: BROMINE or BROMINE SOLUTION
    IMDG: BROMINE or BROMINE SOLUTION
    IATA: BROMINE or BROMINE SOLUTION

    14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

    ADR/RID: 8 IMDG: 8 IATA: 8

    14.4 Packing group, if applicable

    ADR/RID: II IMDG: II IATA: II

    14.5 Environmental hazards

    ADR/RID: yes IMDG: yes IATA: yes

    14.6 Special precautions for user

    no data available

    14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

    no data available

    15.Regulatory information

    15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

    Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
    dibromine dibromine 7726-95-6 none
    European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
    EC Inventory Listed.
    United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
    China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
    New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
    Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
    Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
    Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

    16.Other information

    Information on revision

    Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
    Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

    Abbreviations and acronyms

    • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
    • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
    • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
    • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
    • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
    • TWA: Time Weighted Average
    • STEL: Short term exposure limit
    • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
    • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
    • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

    References

    • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
    • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
    • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
    • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
    • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
    • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
    • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
    • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
    • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

    Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
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