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    limonene
    CAS No.: 138-86-3 Formula: C10H16 Molecular Weight: 136.23400
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    limonene

    CAS No.: 138-86-3 Formula: C10H16 Molecular Weight: 136.23400
    Suppliers: All (52) China Suppliers (52) Price Available (13) Contractor (3)

    Description

    Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common d-isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewables-based solvent in cleaning products.
    Limonene takes its name from the lemon, as the rind of the lemon, like other citrus fruits, contains considerable amounts of this compound, which contributes to their odor. Limonene is a chiral molecule, and biological sources produce one enantiomer: the principal industrial source, citrus fruit, contains d-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is the (R)-enantiomer. Racemic limonene is known as dipentene. d-Limonene is obtained commercially from citrus fruits through two primary methods: centrifugal separation or steam distillation.

    Basic Info

    Chemical Name limonene
    Synonyms

    Nesol; Unitene; Cinene; Dipanol; Ciene; dycom; Eulimen; Cinen; (±)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene; p-mentha-1,8-diene; p-menth-1,8-diene; Depanol; Expand

    CAS No. 138-86-3
    Molecular Formula C10H16
    Molecular Weight 136.23400
    PSA 0.00000
    LogP 3.30890

    Numbering system

    MDL number MFCD00062992
    BRN number 3195091
    EINECS number 205-341-0
    RTECS number OS8100000
    PubChem number 24902101

    Properties

    Appearance & Physical State colourless or light yellow liquid
    Density 0.84
    Boiling Point 178oC
    Melting Point -97oC
    Flash Point 46oC
    Refractive Index 1.467
    Water Solubility <1 g/100mL
    Stability Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
    Storage Condition 2-8oC
    Vapor Density 4.7 (vs air)
    Vapor Pressure <3 mm Hg ( 14.4 °C)

    Safety Info

    RTECS OS8350000
    Hazard Class 3
    Safety Statements S24-S37-S60-S61
    HS Code 2942000000
    Packing Group III
    WGK Germany 2
    RIDADR UN 2052 3/PG 3
    Risk Statements R10; R38; R43; R50/53
    Hazard Codes Xi; N
    SDS 1.0 Expand

    SDS 1.0

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    SAFETY DATA SHEETS

    According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

    Version: 1.0

    Creation Date: Aug 10, 2017

    Revision Date: Aug 10, 2017

    1.Identification

    1.1 GHS Product identifier

    Product name limonene

    1.2 Other means of identification

    Product number -
    Other names dycom

    1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

    Identified uses For industry use only. Fragrances
    Uses advised against no data available

    1.4 Supplier's details

    Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
    Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
    Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
    Telephone +86(21)64956998
    Fax +86(21)54365166

    1.5 Emergency phone number

    Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
    Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

    2.Hazard identification

    2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

    Flammable liquids, Category 3

    Skin irritation, Category 2

    Skin sensitization, Category 1

    Hazardous to the aquatic environment, short-term (Acute) - Category Acute 1

    Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) - Category Chronic 1

    2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

    Pictogram(s)
    Signal word

    Warning

    Hazard statement(s)

    H226 Flammable liquid and vapour

    H315 Causes skin irritation

    H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction

    H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

    Precautionary statement(s)
    Prevention

    P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking.

    P233 Keep container tightly closed.

    P240 Ground and bond container and receiving equipment.

    P241 Use explosion-proof [electrical/ventilating/lighting/...] equipment.

    P242 Use non-sparking tools.

    P243 Take action to prevent static discharges.

    P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

    P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

    P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

    P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.

    P273 Avoid release to the environment.

    Response

    P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

    P370+P378 In case of fire: Use ... to extinguish.

    P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

    P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

    P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

    P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

    P333+P313 If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

    P391 Collect spillage.

    Storage

    P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

    Disposal

    P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

    2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

    none

    3.Composition/information on ingredients

    3.1 Substances

    Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
    limonene limonene 138-86-3 none 100%

    4.First-aid measures

    4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

    General advice

    Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

    If inhaled

    If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.

    In case of skin contact

    Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician.

    In case of eye contact

    Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.

    If swallowed

    Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.

    4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

    Liquid irritates eyes; prolonged contact with skin causes irritation. Ingestion causes irritation of gastrointestinal tract. (USCG, 1999)

    4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

    Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on the left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Turpentine, terpenes, and related compounds/

    5.Fire-fighting measures

    5.1 Extinguishing media

    Suitable extinguishing media

    Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.

    5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

    Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode. (USCG, 1999)

    5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

    Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

    6.Accidental release measures

    6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

    Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

    6.2 Environmental precautions

    Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

    6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

    If a spill occurs, clean it up promptly. Don't wash it away. Instead, sprinkle the spill with sawdust, vermiculite, or kitty litter. Sweep it into a plastic garbage bag, and dispose of it as directed on the pesticide product label.

    7.Handling and storage

    7.1 Precautions for safe handling

    Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

    7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

    Store in a flammable liquid storage area or approved cabinet away from ignition sources and corrosive and reacting materials. ... Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well ventilated area away from heat and incompatible materials.

    8.Exposure controls/personal protection

    8.1 Control parameters

    Occupational Exposure limit values

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 100 ppm (560 mg/cu m).

    Biological limit values

    no data available

    8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

    Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

    8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

    Eye/face protection

    Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

    Skin protection

    Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

    Respiratory protection

    Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

    Thermal hazards

    no data available

    9.Physical and chemical properties

    Physical state colourless or light yellow liquid
    Colour PALE YELLOW OR GREENISH-YELLOW LIQUID
    Odour ACQUIRES TEREBINTHINATE ODOR UPON OXIDATION
    Melting point/ freezing point -96°C(lit.)
    Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 178°C
    Flammability no data available
    Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit Lower flammable limit: 0.7% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 6.1% by volume (at 302 deg F (150°C))
    Flash point 45°C(lit.)
    Auto-ignition temperature 236.67°C (USCG, 1999)
    Decomposition temperature no data available
    pH no data available
    Kinematic viscosity no data available
    Solubility In water: <1 g/100mL
    Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) log Kow = 4.57
    Vapour pressure <3 mm Hg ( 14.4 °C)
    Density and/or relative density 0.84
    Relative vapour density 4.7 (vs air)
    Particle characteristics no data available

    10.Stability and reactivity

    10.1 Reactivity

    no data available

    10.2 Chemical stability

    OIL READILY UNDERGOES DETERIORATION

    10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

    Flammable when exposed to heat or flame.DIPENTENE may react vigorously with strong oxidizing agents. May react exothermically with reducing agents to release hydrogen gas.

    10.4 Conditions to avoid

    no data available

    10.5 Incompatible materials

    Forms explosive mixture with air. Contact with oxidizers may cause fire and explosion hazard.

    10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

    When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

    11.Toxicological information

    Acute toxicity

    • Oral: LD50 Mouse oral 5.6-6.6 g/kg
    • Inhalation: LC50 Rat inhalation 20 mg/L/1 hr
    • Dermal: no data available

    Skin corrosion/irritation

    no data available

    Serious eye damage/irritation

    no data available

    Respiratory or skin sensitization

    no data available

    Germ cell mutagenicity

    no data available

    Carcinogenicity

    Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of d-limonene. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of d-limonene. Overall evaluation: In making its overall evaluation of the carcinogenicity to humans of d-limonene, the Working Group concluded that d-limonene produces renal tubular tumors in male rats by a non-DNA reactive alpha-2u-globulin associated response. Therefore, the mechanism by which d-limonene incr the incidence of renal tubular tumors in male rats is not relevant to humans. d-Limonene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). /d-Limonene/

    Reproductive toxicity

    no data available

    STOT-single exposure

    no data available

    STOT-repeated exposure

    no data available

    Aspiration hazard

    no data available

    12.Ecological information

    12.1 Toxicity

    • Toxicity to fish: LC50; Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout); Conditions: static; Concentration: 80 ppm for 96 hr (95% confidence limit: 71.4-88.7 ppm) /92% AI formulated product
    • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: EC50; Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea) age <24 hr; Conditions: static; Concentration: 17 ppm for 48 hr (95% confidence limit: 11-33 ppm); Effect: intoxication, immobilization /4.0% AI formulated product
    • Toxicity to algae: no data available
    • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

    12.2 Persistence and degradability

    AEROBIC: Organisms isolated from soil and water were unable to oxidize limonene in laboratory experiments(1). Limonene was listed as a compound difficult to biodegrade and was classified in level 3 (difficult to biodegrade) in a 5 tiered rating system on ease of biodegradability(2). The concentration of limonene between the influent and effluent of aerated treatment lagoons was found to decrease significantly which the author ascribed to a biological removal process although complete documentation was not provided(3). Other studies have indicated that limonene is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. Limonene, present at 100 mg/L, reached 73% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test(4). Terpene-acclimated inocula prepared from soil obtained from a coniferous forest and hardwood forest in North Carolina degraded limonene with a half-life of approximately 9-20 hours at 23°C following a lag period of 15-23 hours(5). Degradation by unacclimated inocula did not begin until after a 182-hour lag period(5).

    12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

    An estimated BCF of 480 was calculated for limonene(SRC), using a log Kow of 4.57(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high, provided the compound is not metabolized by the organism(SRC).

    12.4 Mobility in soil

    Using a structure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices(1), the Koc for limonene can be estimated to be 1,100(SRC). According to a classification scheme(2), this estimated Koc value suggests that limonene is expected to have low mobility in soil(SRC).

    12.5 Other adverse effects

    no data available

    13.Disposal considerations

    13.1 Disposal methods

    Product

    The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

    Contaminated packaging

    Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

    14.Transport information

    14.1 UN Number

    ADR/RID: UN2052 IMDG: UN2052 IATA: UN2052

    14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

    ADR/RID: DIPENTENE
    IMDG: DIPENTENE
    IATA: DIPENTENE

    14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

    ADR/RID: 3 IMDG: 3 IATA: 3

    14.4 Packing group, if applicable

    ADR/RID: III IMDG: III IATA: III

    14.5 Environmental hazards

    ADR/RID: yes IMDG: yes IATA: yes

    14.6 Special precautions for user

    no data available

    14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

    no data available

    15.Regulatory information

    15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

    Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
    limonene limonene 138-86-3 none
    European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
    EC Inventory Listed.
    United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
    China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
    New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
    Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
    Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
    Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

    16.Other information

    Information on revision

    Creation Date Aug 10, 2017
    Revision Date Aug 10, 2017

    Abbreviations and acronyms

    • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
    • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
    • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
    • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
    • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
    • TWA: Time Weighted Average
    • STEL: Short term exposure limit
    • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
    • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
    • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

    References

    • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
    • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
    • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
    • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
    • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
    • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
    • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
    • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
    • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

    Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
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